Introduction to the Product Life Cycle

What Is a Product Life Cycle?

A product lifecycle is the progression of a product through various stages, from its introduction to its retirement. 

The stages include Development, Introduction, Growth, Maturity, and Decline. Each stage has its characteristics, such as growth rate, profitability, and competition.

An example of a product lifecycle is the compact disc (CD). The CD was developed in the late 1970s and introduced to the market in the early 1980s. 

It quickly gained popularity (Growth stage), reaching its peak in the late 1990s with widespread use (Maturity stage). 

With the advent of digital music and online streaming, sales of CDs declined (Decline stage), and the product no longer exists. 

How Does a Product Lifecycle Work?

The product lifecycle is the journey a product takes from its inception to its discontinuation. It consists of the following stages:


During this stage, a product idea is researched and developed. This stage involves investment in design, engineering, and testing. 

For example, a company may conduct market research to determine if there is demand for a new type of smartphone with unique features. If the research is positive, the company will invest in developing and bringing the product to market.


This is the stage where the company launches a product into the market. Marketing efforts are focused on generating awareness and building a customer base. 

For example, when a company introduces a new smartphone model, the company will launch a marketing campaign to create buzz and attract early adopters. Low sales and high marketing expenses characterize this stage.


During this stage, sales of the product increase rapidly, and the product starts to gain popularity. 

Companies focus on expanding their product offerings and distribution networks. 

For example, as smartphone sales grow, the company will expand into new markets and release additional models with different features and price points to meet the needs of different customer segments.


During this stage, sales growth slows down, and the product reaches its peak. Companies focus on maintaining market share, improving efficiency, and maximizing profitability.

For example, as competition in the smartphone market increases, the company may focus on improving its product line, reducing costs, and increasing customer satisfaction to maintain its market position.


During this stage, sales decline, and the company may discontinue the product.

Companies may focus on phasing out the product or finding ways to rejuvenate it. For example, as sales of CDs decline, a company may focus on discontinuing the production of CDs and transitioning to digital music offerings.

In conclusion, the product lifecycle is essential for companies to understand as it helps them plan and make strategic decisions about their product offerings. 

By understanding each stage of the lifecycle, companies can identify opportunities and challenges and make informed decisions that help them maximize their return on investment and maintain competitiveness.

Advantages of Using a Product Lifecycle

A product lifecycle is a valuable tool for companies as it provides a structured approach to understanding the journey of a product from its inception to its discontinuation. 

By considering each stage of the lifecycle, companies can make informed decisions about their product offerings and allocate resources more effectively. This leads to better product planning, improved decision-making, increased profitability, and customer satisfaction. 

The product lifecycle helps companies maximize their return on investment and maintain competitiveness by identifying opportunities and challenges at each stage and making decisions that address them. 

By understanding the product lifecycle, companies can determine when to launch a new product, when to discontinue a product, and when to rejuvenate a product, ultimately leading to improved results and increased success.

Limitations of Using the Product Lifecycle

The product lifecycle, while helpful, has its limitations. The inflexibility of the product lifecycle in rapidly changing industries is a significant limitation. 

The lifecycle stages are only sometimes predictable, and market conditions and consumer preferences can change quickly, making it challenging to predict a product’s lifecycle accurately. 

Additionally, the product lifecycle’s limited predictive power can make it difficult for companies to plan and make informed decisions based on this information. 

The lifecycle has its basis on assumptions about consumer behavior and market conditions, which may only sometimes hold, leading to a reliance on inaccurate information. 

As a result, the product lifecycle may need to accurately reflect market reality, making it a less effective tool for planning and decision-making.

Example of the Product Lifecycle

One example of a brand that has gone through the product lifecycle stages is Kodak. Kodak was once a market leader in the photography industry, but as technology advanced and digital cameras became more prevalent, Kodaks’s product lifecycle changed.

In the Introduction stage, Kodak was a pioneer in the photography industry and offered the first commercially available camera in the late 19th century.

In the Growth stage, Kodak continued to expand its product line and dominate the photography market. Its film and cameras were popular and widely used by consumers.

However, in the Maturity stage, digital cameras started to gain popularity, and Kodak needed help to keep up with the changing market. Despite attempts to shift its focus towards digital photography, Kodak was unable to compete with digital camera brands, leading to a decline in sales.

Finally, in the Decline stage, Kodak filed for bankruptcy in 2012 and underwent a major restructuring to focus on other areas of its business.

Today, Kodak is still a brand, but it no longer dominates the photography market, having been impacted by the changing technology and market conditions throughout its product lifecycle.

Why Is Product Lifecycle Essential?

The product lifecycle is important for several reasons:

Planning and Decision Making

Understanding a product’s lifecycle helps companies plan for the future and make informed decisions about product development, sales, and marketing strategies.

Resource Allocation

By knowing where a product is in its lifecycle, companies can allocate resources effectively and ensure they invest in the right areas.

Market Analysis

The product lifecycle provides insight into market trends and consumer behavior, allowing companies to make informed decisions about the future of their products and the market as a whole.


By understanding the product lifecycle, companies can gain a competitive advantage and make informed decisions about staying ahead of their competition.


By managing the lifecycle of their products effectively, companies can maximize their profitability and achieve long-term success.

In summary, the product lifecycle is essential because it provides a framework for understanding the journey of a product and helps companies make informed decisions about product development, marketing, sales, and overall business strategy.

How Does One Calculate the Product Lifecycle?

Calculating the product lifecycle involves analyzing sales data and market trends to determine where a product is in its lifecycle. The process typically involves the following steps:

Collect Data

Gather data on sales, market trends, and consumer behavior for the product you will evaluate.

Determine Product Stage

Analyze the sales data to identify patterns and determine which stage of the product lifecycle the product is in (Introduction, Growth, Maturity, or Decline).

Evaluate Market Trends

Consider market trends and consumer behavior to determine if the product is moving towards a different stage of the product lifecycle.

Monitor Changes

Continuously monitor the product and market to ensure the product lifecycle calculations are up-to-date and reflect current conditions.

It’s important to remember that the product lifecycle is a fluid process, and products can move between stages based on changes in the market and consumer behavior. As a result, companies must continuously monitor their products and adjust their strategies accordingly.

Final Words

The product lifecycle is a valuable framework for businesses to understand the journey of their products, market trends, and consumer behavior. 

By recognizing where a product is in its lifecycle, companies can make informed decisions about product development, marketing, sales, and overall business strategy. 

Understanding the product lifecycle helps companies plan for the future and allocate resources effectively, leading to increased profitability and long-term success. 

Although it has limitations, the product lifecycle remains an essential tool for businesses to stay competitive and meet the demands of a dynamic market.